Variability in purified dysfunctional C1(-)-inhibitor proteins from patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema. Functional and analytical gel studies.


C1(-)-inhibitor (C1(-)-INH) proteins from normal persons and members of eight different kindred with dysfunctional C1(-)-INH proteins associated with hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) were compared with respect to their inhibitory activity against purified preparations of C1s-, plasma kallikrein, activated forms of Hageman factor, and plasmin. Each dysfunctional C1(-)-INH protein showed a unique spectrum of inhibitory activity against these enzymes. Although none of the dysfunctional C1(-)-INH proteins significantly impaired amidolysis by plasmin, all but one inhibited activated Hageman factor. One purified dysfunctional C1(-)-INH (Ta) inhibited purified C1s- to a normal degree. Another C1(-)-INH (Za) had almost seven times as much inhibitory activity as normal C1(-)-INH against activated Hageman factor, but had decreased activity against C1s- and no activity against plasmin. Analyses of mixtures of plasmin and C1(-)-INH proteins in SDS gel electrophoresis revealed variability in the patterns of complex formation and cleavage of dysfunctional proteins after exposure to C1s- and plasmin. Some bound to plasmin and were cleaved, even though none significantly impaired the amidolytic activity of plasmin. Two were cleaved by C1s-, whereas neither normal or other dysfunctional C1(-)-INH were cleaved. Dysfunctional C1(-)-INH proteins from patients with HANE are thus heterogeneous in their inhibitory properties and there must be different structural requirements for the inhibition of the various plasma enzymes that can be regulated by normal C1(-)-INH. The data suggest that in addition to common sites of interactions between these proteases and C1(-)-INH, there are also points of contact that are specific for each protease. Genetic mutations leading to structural changes at some of these sites may have differing effects on the interaction between individual proteases and abnormal C1(-)-INH proteins. These alterations may allow these proteins to serve as probes for structural requirements for inhibitory actions of normal C1(-)-INH.

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