Short-term prophylaxis in patients with angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency undergoing dental procedures: An observational study

BACKGROUND: Patients affected by angioedema due to hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (HAE and AAE, respectively) report trouble accessing dental care, due to the risk of a life-threatening oropharyngeal and laryngeal attack triggered by dental procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the identification of hurdles in receiving dental care, and the effectiveness of short-term prophylaxis (STP) in preventing angioedema attacks. In addition, the study evaluated the impact of dental care in angioedema disease. All patients affected by angioedema due to C1-INH deficiency who were treated in the dentistry outpatient department of ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco hospital (Milan, Italy) between 2009 and 2017 were considered for the analysis. Data were collected from patients’ records.

RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were analyzed (27 with HAE and 2 with AAE). Of these, 63.0% reported that they had previously experienced hurdles in accessing dental care. Among patients with pathological oral status, at the first visit, 59.26% patients had moderate-to-severe oral disease. Seventy-five dental procedures were performed in 20 patients. Sixty procedures were preceded by STP (58 with plasma-derived C1-INH and 2 with danazol) in patients with/without long-term prophylaxis (LTP). Post-procedural attacks occurred in two patients. One HAE patient undergoing a tooth extraction without STP/LTP experienced a laryngeal attack. The other post-procedural attack occurred in an AAE patient with anti-C1-INH antibodies with STP with pdC1-INH. The angioedema disease did not worsen in any patient after dental care, but improved in four of them.

CONCLUSIONS: Most C1-INH-HAE patients reported hurdles in receiving dental care. STP protects against attacks after dental procedures. Treating oral diseases results in improvement in the frequency of attacks.

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