Review of icatibant use in the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority

BACKGROUND: This is a retrospective review of the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority’s (WRHA) angioedema patients who were dispensed icatibant in hospital. Icatibant is a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist indicated for Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) types I and II and is used off-label for HAE with normal C1INH (HAE-nC1INH) and ACE-inhibitor induced angioedema (ACEIIAE). The WRHA’s use of icatibant is regulated by the Allergist on call. We characterized icatibant’s use and the timeline from patient presentation, compared the real-world experience with the FAST-3 trial and hypothesized the factors which may affect response to icatibant.

METHODS: Background data were collected on patients. Angioedema attack-related data included administered medications, performed investigations and the timeline to endpoints such as onset of symptom relief. Data was analyzed in R with the package “survival.” Time-to-event data was analyzed using the Peto-Peto Prentice method or Mann-Whitney U-test. Data was also compared with published clinical trial data using the Sign Test. Fisher’s Exact Test was used to produce descriptive statistics.

RESULTS: Overall, 21 patients accounted for 23 angioedema attacks treated with icatibant. Approximately half the patients had a diagnosis of HAE-nC1IHN and half of ACEIIAE. Of those presenting with angioedema, 65% were first treated with conventional medication. Patients without a prior angioedema diagnosis were evaluated only 40-50% of the time for C4 levels or C1INH function or level. The median time from patients’ arrival to the emergency department until the Allergy consultant’s response was 1.77 h. Patients with HAE-nC1IHN had median times to onset of symptom relief and final clinical outcome (1.13 h, p = 0.34; 3.50 h, p = 0.11) similar to those reported in FAST-3 for HAE I/II. Patients with ACEIIAE had longer median times to onset of symptom relief (4.86 h, p = 0.01) than predicted.

CONCLUSIONS: HAE-nC1INH may be an appropriate indication for treatment with icatibant. Conversely, the results of this study do not support the use of icatibant for the treatment of ACEIIAE, concordant with a growing body of literature. Patients should be stratified into groups of more- or less-likely icatibant-responders through history and laboratory investigations in order to prevent potential delays.

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