Recombinant human C1-esterase inhibitor relieves symptoms of hereditary angioedema attacks: phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE), caused by C1 inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency or dysfunction, is characterized by recurrent attacks of tissue swelling affecting multiple anatomic locations. Recombinant human C1INH (rhC1INH) has been shown effective for acute treatment of HAE attacks.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhC1INH (50 IU/kg to maximum 4,200 IU/treatment) vs placebo in a larger HAE population.

METHODS: Seventy-five patients experiencing peripheral, abdominal, facial, and/or oropharyngeal laryngeal attacks were randomized (3:2) to rhC1INH (n = 44) or placebo (saline; n = 31). Efficacy was assessed by patient responses on a Treatment Effect Questionnaire (TEQ) and visual analog scale (VAS). Safety also was evaluated.

RESULTS: Median (95% confidence interval) time to beginning of symptom relief at the primary attack location was 90 minutes (61-150) in rhC1INH-treated patients vs 152 minutes (93, not estimable) in placebo-treated patients (P = .031) based on the TEQ and 75 minutes (60-105) vs 303 minutes (81-720, P = .003) based on a VAS decrease of at least 20 mm. Median time to minimal symptoms was 303 minutes (240-720) in rhC1INH-treated patients vs 483 minutes (300-1,440) in placebo-treated patients based on the TEQ (P = .078) and 240 minutes (177-270) vs 362 minutes (240, not estimable; P = .005), based on an overall VAS less than 20 mm. Overall, rhC1INH was safe and well tolerated; no thromboembolic events, anaphylaxis, or neutralizing antibodies were observed.

CONCLUSION: Relief of symptoms of HAE attacks was achieved faster with rhC1INH compared with placebo as assessed by the TEQ and VAS, with a positive safety profile. Results are consistent with previous studies showing efficacy and safety of rhC1INH in patients with HAE. Copyright 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2014 Feb;112(2):163-169.e1

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