Preventive treatment of hereditary angioedema: A review of phase III clinical trial data for subcutaneous C1 inhibitor and relevance for patient management [Review]

PURPOSE: Hereditary angioedema (HAE), most often caused by a genetically mediated deficiency in the activity of C1 inhibitor (C1INH) protein, is characterized clinically by recurrent episodes of localized swelling without wheals. HAE attacks can be painful, debilitating, and even fatal, resulting in physical discomfort, emotional stress, and interruptions of work, school, and/or social activities, all of which can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Subcutaneous C1INH (C1INH[SC]) is recommended as a first-line option for long-term prophylaxis (LTP) in HAE. This narrative review provides a concise but comprehensive overview of all published data generated from the pivotal Phase III Clinical Study for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema With Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT) study program, which evaluated the use of C1INH(SC) as LTP.

METHODS: A PubMed search was performed using the search terms subcutaneous C1 inhibitor plus COMPACT with no filters, and another search was performed using the term subcutaneous C1 inhibitor, with output limited to clinical trial data only. All publications that reported data generated during the Phase III COMPACT study were included. Data presentation focused on the US Food and Drug Administration-approved dose of 60 IU/kg.

FINDINGS: The search strategy identified a total of 11 publications that reported data and analyses from the Phase III COMPACT study. Publications reported overall findings from the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover COMPACT study and a subsequent long-term open-label extension (OLE) study. Other published analyses included pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data, HRQoL assessments, and findings in patient subgroups including women, pediatric patients, and patients >=65 years of age. Subgroup analyses reported good safety and efficacy profiles among age-based subgroups from the COMPACT OLE, including pediatric patients, patients >=65 years of age with comorbidities, and among female patients, despite a tendency for HAE to be more severe in women. A number of significant HRQoL improvements were noted with C1INH(SC) use, including better overall health status, less anxiety, and less work- and activity-related impairment versus placebo (double-blind study), and compared with baseline (OLE).

IMPLICATIONS: This review provides a concise overview of all published COMPACT study data with C1INH(SC). The data reviewed here portray a high level of efficacy and tolerability with C1INH(SC), even during periods of treatment that exceed 2 years, which does not appear to vary based on patient age or sex. Clinically relevant improvements in multiple facets of HRQoL were also reported, including better overall HRQoL, less anxiety and depression, and less disruptions in work attendance and productivity. These data should be useful for assessing the appropriateness of C1INH(SC) therapy for individual patients. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.

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