Investigational drugs in phase I and phase II clinical trials for hereditary angioedema [Review]

INTRODUCTION: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare bradykinin-mediated disease characterized by recurrent subcutaneous and/or submucosal angioedematous attacks (HAE attacks), which occur unpredictably. The recurrent HAE attacks do not respond to conventional treatments, and may evolve into a life-threatening condition; therefore, special therapy is required. Areas covered: The agents used so far for the acute management of HAE attacks act by blocking the release of bradykinin, or its binding to its receptor. By contrast, the investigational medicinal products under evaluation in Phase I and II clinical trials are targeted at the prevention of HAE attacks. Chemically, these new drugs are small synthetic molecules, oligonucleotides, or antibodies, which inhibit either kallikrein, or Factor XII. Expert opinion: The key considerations for the development of new medicinal products include more straightforward dosing, self-administration, longer duration of action, and keeping the patient attack-free. This review summarizes the status and the findings of the currently ongoing Phase I and Phase II clinical trials of C1-INH-HAE.

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