Gonadal hormones, estrogen and androgen are strongly involved in the control of the bradykinin production. Estrogen may worsen whereas androgen can be part of the long-term prophylactic treatment. In this review, we will describe the potential impact of estrogen in the pathophysiology of hereditary angioedema (HAE). Then we will review the different hormone treatments and their implication on the course of HAE in women and men: contraception, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), menopause, hormone dependent cancers in women and men, treatment of hyperandrogenism in women. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.106080