Efficacy of different medical therapies for the treatment of acute laryngeal attacks of hereditary angioedema due to C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disease characterized by C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency, resulting in periodic attacks of acute edema, which can be life-threatening if they occur in the upper airway. No head-to-head comparisons of different treatment options for acute HAE attacks are available. Because immediate symptom relief is critical for potentially life-threatening laryngeal attacks, it is important to determine the treatment option that provides optimal treatment response.

OBJECTIVE: Review and compare data from clinical studies that evaluated the efficacy and safety of treatments for laryngeal HAE attacks.

METHODS: We conducted an indirect comparison of clinical outcomes from prospective studies for treatment of 881 acute laryngeal attacks with plasma-derived C1-INH concentrate (pdC1-INH) at fixed doses (500 or 1000 U) or a body weight-adjusted dose (20 U/kg), recombinant C1-INH concentrate at a fixed dose (2100 U), or a body weight-adjusted dose (50 U/kg), icatibant (30 mg), or ecallantide (30 mg). Comparisons included time to onset of symptom relief and need for re-dosing or emergency procedures.

RESULTS: The median time to onset of symptom relief ranged between 15 min and approximately 2 h, and was shortest with body weight-adjusted doses of pdC1-INH. The proportion of laryngeal attacks with re-dosing ranged between 0% and 72%. No re-dosing was needed after treatment with a single body weight-adjusted dose of pdC1-INH (48 attacks).

CONCLUSIONS: Available data suggest that among different HAE treatments, body weight-adjusted pdC1-INH (20 U/kg) provides the most reliable treatment response for treatment of laryngeal HAE attacks.

Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Available from: http://www.jem-journal.com/article/S0736-4679(15)01268-8/fulltext