C1 inhibitor is a potent anti-inflammatory protein as it is the major inhibitor of proteases of the contact and the complement systems. C1-inhibitor administration is an effective therapy in the treatment of patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) who are genetically deficient in C1 inhibitor. Owing to its ability to modulate the contact and complement systems and the convincing safety profile, plasma-derived C1 inhibitor is an attractive therapeutic protein to treat inflammatory diseases other than HAE. In the present review we give an overview of the biology of C1 inhibitor and its use in HAE. Furthermore, we discuss C1 inhibitor as an experimental therapy in diseases such as sepsis and myocardial infarction. [References: 176].
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