Chronic urticaria and angioedema are diseases often managed by Allergy and Immunology specialists. Recent international guidelines have outlined a stepwise approach to management of patients using dose escalation of second-generation antihistamines followed by use of omalizumab and finally cyclosporine in more refractory cases. In select patients (those with refractory chronic urticaria), nonbiologic alternative medications with anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressant activity may be considered. Angioedema without wheals may have several different pathophysiologic mechanisms. Optimal management of mast cell-mediated angioedema is less clear but is often managed similar to chronic spontaneous urticaria. Drug-induced angioedema due to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors is a common cause of angioedema in the emergency department. Although bradykinin is thought to be a primary mediator for this type of angioedema, studies of targeted therapies have been generally disappointing. In contrast, several targeted therapies have been proven successful using acute and preventive approaches for management of hereditary angioedema. Further developments, including novel biologics, novel oral therapies, and gene therapy approaches, may hopefully continue to broaden therapeutic options to ensure optimal individual management of patients with hereditary angioedema. Copyright © 2021 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2021.03.012