Treatment of hereditary angioedema [Review]

Hereditary angioedema due to C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease. In the last decade, new drugs and new indications for old drugs have played a role in the management of C1-INH-HAE. This review examines current therapy for C1-INH-HAE and provides a brief summary of drugs that are under development. Increased knowledge of the pathophysiology of C1-INH-HAE has been crucial for advances in the field, with inhibition of the kallikrein-kinin system (plasma kallikrein, activated factor XII) as a key area in the discovery of new drugs, some of which are already marketed for treatment of C1-INH-HAE. Pharmacological treatment is based on 3 pillars: treatment of acute angioedema attacks (on-demand treatment), short-term (preprocedure) prophylaxis, and long-term prophylaxis. The 4 drugs that are currently available for the treatment of acute angioedema attacks (purified plasma-derived human C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate, icatibant acetate, ecallantide, recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor) are all authorized for self-administration, except ecallantide. Purified plasma-derived human C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate is the treatment of choice for short-term prophylaxis. Tranexamic acid, danazol, intravenous and subcutaneous nanofiltered purified plasma-derived human C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate, and lanadelumab can be used for long-term prophylaxis. New drugs are being investigated, mainly as long-term prophylaxis, and are aimed at blocking the kallikrein-kinin system by means of antiprekallikrein, antikallikrein, and anti-activated FXII action.

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