Thyroid hormones and complement parameters in hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones control and up-regulate the synthesis of many plasma proteins.

OBJECTIVE: To explore possible associations between thyroid hormone and complement levels in patients with hereditary angioedema resulting from the deficiency of the C1-inhibitor (C1-INH-HAE).

METHODS: In this case-control study, serum thyrotropin, free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) levels, anti-thyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibody titers, and C1-INH concentrations were measured in 117 euthyroid patients with C1-INH-HAE and compared with their clinical properties. The control group comprised 150 healthy, age- and sex-matched, euthyroid individuals.

RESULTS: The thyrotropin and antithyroglobulin levels were similar between the patients and the controls. Significantly lower FT3 (P < .001) and FT4 (P = .002) levels, as well as higher anti-thyroid peroxidase titers (P < .001), were seen in the patients with C1-INH-HAE. The proportion of patients with reduced C1-INH activity was greater among those with below-median FT4 levels than among those with above-median values (P = .02). Patients who experienced more edematous attacks per year had lower FT4 levels (within the normal range) than those afflicted by fewer episodes (P = .01). The FT3 and FT4 levels were significantly higher in patients undergoing long-term danazol therapy than in those who did not receive this drug (P = .01 and P = .02, respectively). The proportion of patients with FT4 levels in the below-median range was higher in the subset with increased d-dimer concentration (P = .009).

CONCLUSION: Minor variations of the thyroid hormone levels (within the reference range) can influence the function of C1-INH in C1-INH-HAE. Our findings suggest a role for the endocrine system in the pathophysiology of C1-INH-HAE.
Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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