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Therapeutic approaches in hereditary angioedema

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by acute attacks of edema with multiple localizations, the laryngeal angioedema being the most potentially lethal. In HAE, C1-INH impairments cause episodic increase in kallikrein activity leading to attacks of angioedema. Several therapies have recently become available to treat or to prevent HAE attacks, and others are under evaluation for this indication. Plasma-derived C1-INH, bradykinin receptor antagonists (icatibant), kallikrein inhibitors (ecallantide), or recombinant C1-INH is authorized on the market for HAE attack therapy or prophylaxis. Some of these compounds can be used exclusively to treat HAE attacks, whereas others can also be used as prophylactic therapies. Such therapies, although not available worldwide, can improve disease outcome due to their different mechanisms of action.

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