Response time for ecallantide treatment of acute hereditary angioedema attacks

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare, debilitating, and potentially fatal disease characterized by acute attacks of swelling that can affect the abdomen/gastrointestinal tract, larynx, face, genitals, and extremities. Ecallantide is a novel plasma kallikrein inhibitor developed for the treatment of acute HAE attacks.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the speed of effect of ecallantide vs placebo.

METHODS: Data were integrated from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials of ecallantide in patients with HAE. Eligible patients presented within 8 hours of onset of a moderate to severe HAE attack for 1:1 randomization to receive a single dose of 30 mg of subcutaneous ecallantide or placebo. End points included time to beginning of improvement, time to sustained overall improvement, and time to significant overall improvement.

RESULTS: A total of 143 participants (70 receiving ecallantide and 73 receiving placebo) were included. The distribution curves for time to beginning of improvement demonstrated a trend in favor of ecallantide vs placebo within 4 hours (P(log rank) = .09). For time to onset of sustained improvement, the difference in the distribution of the curves between the 2 groups reached significance by 2 hours after dosing (P(log rank) = .04). For time to significant overall improvement, the difference in the distribution of the curves reached significance in favor of ecallantide by 90 minutes (P(log rank) = .04). The beneficial effect of ecallantide was demonstrated earliest for abdominal attacks, followed by laryngeal and peripheral attacks.

CONCLUSIONS: Ecallantide provides relief of acute HAE attack symptoms, with rapidity of response commensurate with therapeutic needs for HAE attack locations.Copyright © 2010 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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