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Outcomes after ecallantide treatment of laryngeal hereditary angioedema attacks

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder associated with episodic attacks of well-demarcated angioedema. Attacks that affect the larynx can result in life-threatening airway obstruction.

OBJECTIVES: To examine efficacy and safety of ecallantide treatment for laryngeal HAE attacks.

METHODS: Data were combined from 4 clinical studies (EDEMA2, EDEMA3, EDEMA4, and DX-88/19) evaluating 30 mg of subcutaneous ecallantide for treatment of acute HAE attacks. Efficacy was assessed using 2 validated, HAE-specific, patient-reported outcome measures. The change in Mean Symptom Complex Severity (MSCS) score indicates change in symptom severity; a negative score indicates improvement. The calculated minimally important difference (MID) for change in severity is -0.30. The Treatment Outcome Score (TOS) measures treatment response. A positive score indicates improvement; the calculated MID is 30. RESULTS: Overall, 98 patients received ecallantide for 220 laryngeal attacks. The mean +/- SD change in MSCS score was -1.1 +/- 0.73 and -1.6 +/- 0.68 at 4 and 24 hours, respectively. The mean +/- SD TOS was 73.5 +/- 35.8 and 85.5 +/- 27.8 at 4 and 24 hours, respectively. Median time to significant improvement was 185 minutes (95% confidence interval, 167-226). One attack required intubation. Four treatment-emergent serious adverse events were reported, including 2 HAE attacks that resulted in hospitalization and 2 anaphylactic reactions. One of these reactions required treatment with epinephrine, but both patients recovered fully. There were no deaths.

CONCLUSION: In this large attack series, ecallantide was effective for treatment of laryngeal HAE attacks. There is a risk of hypersensitivity, including anaphylaxis, consistent with product labeling. As such, ecallantide should be administered under the supervision of a health care professional.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifiers: not applicable for EDEMA2 (trial was conducted before implementation of registration requirements); NCT00262080 for EDEMA3, NCT00457015 for EDEMA4, and NCT00456508 for DX-88/19.Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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