Long-term safety and efficacy of subcutaneous C1-inhibitor in older patients with hereditary angioedema

BACKGROUND: Patients aged 65 years and older with hereditary angioedema (HAE) owing to C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency may have an altered response to treatment and are at higher risk for treatment-related adverse events (AEs) because of comorbidities and polypharmacy.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) in patients aged 65 years and older treated in an open-label extension of a phase 3 trial.

METHODS: Eligible patients (>=4 attacks for more than 2 consecutive months) were randomized to receive twice-weekly subcutaneous C1-INH with a dosage of 40 IU/kg or 60 IU/kg for 52 to 140 weeks. Safety end points and efficacy outcomes were evaluated for patients aged 65 years and above and younger than 65 years.

RESULTS: Of the 126 patients treated, 10 were 65 years and older (mean age [range], 68 [65-72 years]). A total of 8 of 10 patients had multiple comorbidities, and 6 of these 10 patients were taking more than 5 non-HAE-related drugs concomitantly. AEs occurring in more than 1 patient included injection site bruising (n = 2, related), injection site pain (n = 2, related), urinary tract infection (n = 2, unrelated), and diarrhea (n = 2, unrelated). No thromboembolic events or cases of anaphylaxis were reported. Two patients aged 65 years and older experienced unrelated serious AEs (dehydration and hypokalemia in 1 and pneumonia and an HAE attack leading to hospitalization in another). A total of 6 of 9 evaluable patients were responders, with a greater than or equal to 50% reduction in HAE attacks vs prestudy; 6 of 10 patients had less than 1 attack over 4 weeks and 3 were attack-free (median attack rate, 0.52 attacks per month).

Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2020.05.015