Long-term efficacy of subcutaneous C1 Inhibitor in pediatric patients with hereditary angioedema

Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency is characterized by recurrent attacks of edema of the skin and mucosal tissues. Symptoms usually present during childhood (mean age at first attack, 10 years). Earlier symptom onset may predict a more severe disease course. Subcutaneous (SC) C1INH is indicated for routine prophylaxis to prevent HAE attacks in adolescents and adults. We analyzed the long-term efficacy of C1INH (SC) in subjects <=17 years old treated in an open-label extension (OLE) of the pivotal phase III Clinical Study for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1 Inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT) trial. Methods: Eligible subjects (age >=6 years, with >=4 attacks over 2 consecutive months before entry into the OLE or placebo-controlled COMPACT trial) were treated with C1INH (SC) 40 or 60 IU/kg twice weekly for 52-140 weeks. Subgroup analyses by age (<=17 vs. >17 years) were performed for key efficacy endpoints. Results: Ten subjects were <=17 years old [mean (range) age, 13.3 (8-16) years, 3 subjects <12 years old; exposure range, 51-133 weeks]. All 10 pediatric subjects experienced >=50% reduction (mean, 93%) in number of attacks versus the prestudy period, with a 97% reduction in the median number of attacks/month (0.11). All subjects had <1 attack/4-week period and 4 had <1 attack/year (1 subject was attack free). No subject discontinued treatment due to a treatment-related adverse event. Conclusions: Data from pediatric subjects treated with C1INH (SC) for up to 2.55 years and adult subjects revealed similar efficacy. C1INH (SC) is effective and well tolerated as long-term prophylaxis in children, adolescents, and adults with HAE. Copyright © Donald Levy et al., 2020; Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ped.2020.1143