Hereditary angioedema with F12 mutation: Clinical features and enzyme polymorphisms in 9 Southwestern Spanish families

BACKGROUND: Information on F12 mutation hereditary angioedema (HAE) is still limited, but Spain is now recognized as having one of the highest concentrations of cases in Western Europe.

OBJECTIVE: To describe unique features of HAE in Spanish carriers of the F12 mutation and investigate a potential role for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and aminopeptidase-P polymorphisms in disease expression.

METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study of 35 individuals (80% females) from 9 unrelated families carrying the p.Thr309Lys mutation. We analyzed detailed medical records and complement activity (C4, C1q, C1 inhibitor) and screened for mutations in exon 9 of the F12 gene and 2 polymorphisms: XPNPEP2 c-2399A and the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism.

RESULTS: The p.Thr309Lys mutation was found in all individuals. Three of the 9 index patients had a clinically negative family history, and 72% of males and 29% of females were asymptomatic. Sixteen females (44% estrogen dependent, 56% estrogen sensitive) were clearly symptomatic. The most common locations of attacks were the abdomen (63%), face (25%), and peripheral structures (6%). Triggers other than hyperestrogenic states included stress and minor trauma or pressure. Short-term treatment with C1-inhibitor concentrate and icatibant and long-term prophylaxis with tranexamic acid were useful. The combination of the I allele and A allele was detected in 17% of patients.

CONCLUSION: The polymorphisms analyzed were not a major determinant of disease expression in our population. We recommend searching for F12 mutations in women with edema attacks without associated wheals and with normal C1-inhibitor levels, particularly when they develop symptoms during hyperestrogenic states or are of Western European or African origin.
Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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