Hereditary angioedema: Long-term prophylactic treatment [Review]

Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is a potentially life-threatening condition. With episodic, unpredictable swelling, HAE negatively affect the quality of life for those affected individuals. To reduce the morbidity and mortality of HAE are the primary goal for the disease management. In addition to have access to therapeutic drugs for their acute HAE attacks, many patients require long term prophylaxis (LTP) to reduce their attack frequency and severity. Preventing HAE attack by regular administration of medicine has become an important part of HAE disease management. Over the past few years, growing number of therapeutic options for the HAE LTP have made it possible for physicians to choose the most appropriate and effective treatment for individual patients. C1 INH concentrate and plasma kallikrein inhibitors (IV or SC) have largely replaced the oder modality of treatment consisting different androgen derivatives or antifibrinolytics. Additional options, such as oral kallikrein inhibitor, antisense RNA/plasma kallikrein, anti-Factor 12a, bradykinin receptor blocker or future gene therapy are under clinical investigation. The significant cost and the uncertainty of its long term safety may be the primary limiting factors for its clinical application. The limited data for young children and pregnant women pose additional challenge for physicians to assess the risk and benefit when considering LTP treatment.

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