Reports in basic and clinical immunology in 2010 reflected the use of state-of-the-art genetic and immunologic tools to characterize the pathogenesis of immunologic diseases and the development of novel therapies directed to these conditions. B-cell biology has been explained in greater detail, significantly with lessons from the genetic defects found in the humoral immunodeficiencies. Therapeutic mAbs are given for an increasing number of indications, such as anti-CD20 antibodies or rituximab, which was initially developed for non-Hodgkin lymphomas and is currently used in diverse autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. The report of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Massachusetts detected by means of newborn screening and successfully treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation validated recent efforts toward newborn screening for SCID. Improvement of survival outcomes for patients with primary immunodeficiencies treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was demonstrated in a large European cohort, with significant appreciation of the type of donor graft, particularly the use of HLA-matched unrelated donors for patients with non-SCID. Progress in cellular mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity included the characterization of nitroso-modified drug metabolites as potent T-cell activators and the identification of the relocation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells from blood to skin as a potential risk factor for reactivation of viral disease.Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.